PE stands for Portable Executable. It's the native file format of Win32. Its specification is derived somewhat from the Unix Coff (common object file format). The meaning of "portable executable" is that the file format is universal across win32 platform: the PE loader of every win32 platform recognizes and uses this file format even when Windows is running on CPU platforms other than Intel. It doesn't mean your PE executables would be able to port to other CPU platforms without change. Every win32 executable (except VxDs and 16-bit Dlls) uses PE file format. Even NT's kernel mode drivers use PE file format. Thus studying the PE file format gives you valuable insights into the structure of Windows.
Let's jump into the general outline of PE file format without further ado.
The above picture is the general layout of a PE file. All PE files (even 32-bit DLLs) must start with a simple DOS MZ header. We usually aren't interested in this structure much. It's provided in the case when the program is run from DOS, so DOS can recognize it as a valid executable and can thus run the DOS stub which is stored next to the MZ header. The DOS stub is actually a valid EXE that is executed in case the operating system doesn't know about PE file format. It can simply display a string like "This program requires Windows" or it can be a full-blown DOS program depending on the intent of the programmer. We are also not very interested in DOS stub: it's usually provided by the assembler/compiler. In most case, it simply uses int 21h, service 9 to print a string saying "This program cannot run in DOS mode".
After the DOS stub comes the PE header. The PE header is a general term for the PE-related structure named IMAGE_NT_HEADERS. This structure contains many essential fields that are used by the PE loader. We will be quite familiar with it as you know more about PE file format. In the case the program is executed in the operating system that knows about PE file format, the PE loader can find the starting offset of the PE header from the DOS MZ header. Thus it can skip the DOS stub and go directly to the PE header which is the real file header.
The real content of the PE file is divided into blocks called sections. A section is nothing more than a block of data with common attributes such as code/data, read/write etc. You can think of a PE file as a logical disk. The PE header is the boot sector and the sections are files in the disk. The files can have different attributes such as read-only, system, hidden, archive and so on. I want to make it clear from this point onwards that the grouping of data into a section is done on the common attribute basis: not on logical basis. It doesn't matter how the code/data are used , if the data/code in the PE file have the same attribute, they can be lumped together in a section. You should not think of a section as "data", "code" or some other logical concepts: sections can contain both code and data provided that they have the same attribute. If you have a block of data that you want to be read-only, you can put that data in the section that is marked as read-only. When the PE loader maps the sections into memory, it examines the attributes of the sections and gives the memory block occupied by the sections the indicated attributes.
If we view the PE file format as a logical disk, the PE header as the boot sector and the sections as files, we still don't have enough information to find out where the files reside on the disk, ie. we haven't discussed the directory equivalent of the PE file format. Immediately following the PE header is the section table which is an array of structures. Each structure contains the information about each section in the PE file such as its attribute, the file offset, virtual offset. If there are 5 sections in the PE file, there will be exactly 5 members in this structure array. We can then view the section table as the root directory of the logical disk. Each member of the array is equvalent to the each directory entry in the root directory.
That's all about the physical layout of the PE file format. I'll summarize the major steps in loading a PE file into memory below:
The above steps are oversimplification and are based on my own observation. There may be some inaccuracies but it should give you the clear picture of the process.